Kimberly Burnham, IMTC, PhD Candidate

Essays and articles written by Kimberly Burnham, whose interests include Integrative Manual Therapy (IMT), CenterIMT, Neurodegenerative Disorders, Parkinson's Disease, Vision, VisionIMT, Eye Disorders, Travel, Languages, PhD Candidate, Westbrook University, Connecticut School of Integrative Manual Therapy.

Name:
Location: Bloomfield, Connecticut, United States

Sunday, December 25, 2005

Integrative Manual Therapy References

1. -------. (2000). Northeast seminars offers Online interactive seminars. PT Magazine, March(from http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3936/is_200003/ai_n8882257

2.-------. (2005). Resources for "A Pointe of Interest: How to keep ballet dancers on their toes for years to come." Advance for Directors in Rehabiliation Online Resources(from http://rehabilitation-director.advanceweb.com/common/EditorialSearch/AViewer.aspx?CC=40748

3. -------. (2005). Case Studies on the CenterIMT Website, from http://www.centerimt.com/ejournal.asp

4. -------. (2005). Recovery Program on the CenterIMT Website, from http://www.centerimt.com/Patient/Rec_Programs.asp

5. Albrecht, K. (2005). Integrative manual therapy treatment of a 12 Year old female with Charcot - Marie - Tooth syndrome: focus on the connection between biomechanics and neurology. Journal of Integrative Manual Therapy, Fall(1).

6. Alternative Medicine Foundation. (2005). Manual Therapies: An Alternative and Complementary Medicine Resource Guide, 2005, from http://www.amfoundation.org/manualtherapies.htm

7. Athens Therapeutics (2005). IMT for Kids: from http://www.athenstherapeutics.com/kids.html

8. Back Project. (2005). BackProject Delivers Immediate Back Pain Remedy. BackProject Announced the Addition of Two New Models to the ATM2 Family of Products, Developed to Treat Back, Knee, Hip, Shoulder, and Neck Pain, Consistently, Immediately & With Long-Lasting Results, 2005, from http://justalittlepoke.com/archives/mens_health/

9. Bernard, A. (2005). Ann Bernard Website: from http://www.annbernard.com/index.php?section=concerns

10. Bodri, W. (2005). How to measure and deepen your spiritual realization: a short multi-disciplinary course on evaluating and elevating your meditation progress and spiritual experience. Retrieved Sept 17, 2005, from www.meditationexpert.com/Chapter4.pdf

11. Burnham, K. (1992). Why you should go organic. Alive, 118.

12. Burnham, K. (1993). Plants that clean the air. Flowershop Magazine.

13. Burnham, K. (2002). Can You Feel Your Feet? and What They are Doing to Your Heart Beat? Reflexology Newsletter.

14. Burnham, K. (2005). Validity of Questionnaires in Evidence Based Research: The Assessment of Client’s with Parkinson’s Disease. Journal of Soft Tissue Manipulation, Vol. 12 No. 2.(Winter), found at www.centerimt.com/News/page%201.pdf.

15. Burnham, K. (2005). Kim's Blog Site. Retrieved Aug 10, 2005, from http://kimberlyburnham.myblogsite.com

16. Burnham, K. (2005). A way to consider Integrative Manual Therapy. Health & Recovery, The Newsletter About Integrative Manual Therapy - The Science of Whole Body Health(1).

17. Caperonis, D. (2002). I tried craniosacral therapy: I hoped this hands-on treatment would erase my head and neck tension. Here's what happened at my first session - test run (a treatment with Lissa Wheeler, IMTC). Natural Health, Jan-Feb, found at: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0NAH/is_1_32/ai_81391084

18. Chaitow, L. (1996). Positional Release Techniques, from http://print.google.com/print?q=Weiselfish&ie=UTF-8&id=pPUshu-y6MwC

Page 5: Weiselfish (1993) as well as D'Ambrogio and Roth (1997) suggest that different mechanisms and timings are involved in the use of positional release...http://print.google.com/print?id=pPUshu-y6MwC&pg=PA5&lpg=PA5&dq=Weiselfish&sig=szwATPMgEluyXibIIEDZ9Iek8SI

Page 13, Page 32: Page 51: ... TECHNIQUE 51 D'Ambrogio and Roth (1997), and Weiselfish (1993) indicate that in order to treat neurological conditions a 3-minute hold may be required, ... http://print.google.com/print?id=pPUshu-y6MwC&pg=PA51&lpg=PA51&dq=Weiselfish&sig=cv72YpPNKQPnwmB66boTjBay7FU

Page 52 , 69, 73, 83 ... holding of the position of ease is usually adequate • Weiselfish (1993) recommends approximately 3 minutes for neurological conditions to benefit • ... http://print.google.com/print?id=pPUshu-y6MwC&pg=PA73&lpg=PA73&dq=Weiselfish&sig=07yv5Q1S2Vr79qQj-URVBKKFjw4

19. Collins, L. (2005, Jan 31). Healing hands Integrated manual therapy is alternative method of relieving pain. Retrieved Sept 17, 2005, from http://www.blisstacy.com/blog/2005_01_31_archive.html and http://deseretnews.com/dn/view/0,1249,600108104,00.html

20. Crowell, T. (2005). The relationship between bone bruises and lymphedema after fracture: a case study. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients, Jan. from http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0ISW/is_258/ai_n8592733

21. Douglas, D. (2005). The Delicate Dance An intricate symphony keeps pelvic physiology in tune. Advance for Directors in Rehabilitation, January 01, Vol. 14 •Issue 1 • Page 35 from http://rehabilitation-director.advanceweb.com/common/EditorialSearch/printerfriendly.aspx?AN=DR_05jan1_drp35.html&AD=01-01-2005

22. Gentile, F. (2005). Diagnosis and treatment of bone bruise using Integrative Diagnostic tools and Integrative Manual Therapy techniques: MRI confirmation of manual findings. Journal of Integrative Manual Therapy, Fall(1).

23. Giammatteo, S. (2000). What is Integrative Manual Therapy and How Does it Relate to Knee Injuries, from http://www.centerimtboulder.com/sportsinjuries_article1.htm

24. Giammatteo, S. W. (2005). Relevance of ATM with Neurologically Impaired Adults, from http://www.backproject.com/articles/articles_neuro_applicability.html

25. Giammatteo, S. W. (2005). Integrative Manual Therapy for Facial Palsy, Bell's Palsey Research Foundation: from http://www.bellspalsy.com/giammatteo.htm.

26. Giammatteo, T., & Giammatteo, S. W. (2001). Reflection therapy. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books. www.CenterIMT.com

27. Giammatteo, T., & Weiselfish-Giammatteo, S. (1997). Integrative manual therapy for the autonomic nervous system and related disorders : utilizing advanced strain and counterstrain technique. Berkeley, Calif.: North Atlantic Books. www.CenterIMT.com

28. Griffin, K. L. (2000). Facing the pain. The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel from http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4196/is_20000731/ai_n10636438/print

29. Grossinger, R. (2000). Embryogenesis : species, gender, and identity, from http://print.google.com/print?q=Weiselfish pg 858

30. Gronningsater, A. (2005). The effect of Integrative Manual Therapy on visual motor integration and visual perception. Journal of Integrative Manual Therapy, Fall(1).

31. Havens, R. (2003). Integrative Manual Therapy, 2005, from http://www.holisticnetwork.org/articles/article_17.html

32. Helinski, E. H. (2005). Nutritional update: the state of the American diet and relation to disease Part 1: essential fatty acid depletion. Journal of Integrative Manual Therapy, Fall(1).

33. Holt, J. (2004). Manual Therapy and Athletic Injury Rehabilitation: Benefits of a Class of Therapy. The Sport Supplement, A Supplement of the Sports Journal, Volume 12, Number 3: Summer.from http://www.thesportjournal.org/sport-supplement/vol12no3/03manual_therapy.asp and http://www.friidrott.se/veteran/dokument/dunton/2004/trainin32.html

34. Howard, A. (2005). Anne Howard Website: from http://www.in-balance.com/RESUME.HTM

35. Jespersen, B. (2005). Health and wellness center opens. Maine Today.com Blethen Maine Newspapers, Inc. from http://business.mainetoday.com/news/050623amethyst.shtml

36. Kain, J. B., & Weiselfish, S. (1992). Integrated manual therapy protocol for treatment of idiopathic scoliosis: a new concept. Advance, Dec. https://www.tui.edu/directories/default.asp?printme=1&sortcol=focus&dirCat=PDE&strLink=O.6

37. Kain, J. B. (2005). Integrative Manual Therapy Website, Jay B. Kain website: http://www.jaybkainpt.com/about/diagnostics.html and http://www.jaybkainpt.com/patient/studies.html.

38. Kain, J. B. (1991). An Integrated Manual Therapy Treatment Protocol: A New Approach to the Treatment of Idiopathic Scoliosis: Union University PhD.

39. Kelley, W. M. (2003). Rookie teaching for dummies. New York: Wiley Pub. page 91-92.

40. Leger, S. (2004). Spinal cord injuries dissertation. Westbrook University.

41. Lunn, L. (2005). The use of Integrative Manual Therapy to improve muscle function in clients with SCI. Journal of Integrative Manual Therapy, Fall(1).

42. McLaughlin, K. (2004). Holistic approach to treating the body making its way to the physical therapy department, from http://www.bbgh.org/holisticrehab.htm

43. McLendon, J. H. (2004). "Against the odds." Albany Herald (Saturday, March 5, 2004): from http://albanyherald.net/zonearchive/0305/zone030505.html.

44. NBC30. (2005). Autism: The Hidden Epidemic? Connecticut Autism Information, from http://www.nbc30.com/health/4208354/detail.html

45. Omega Book Centre. (2005). Body Wisdom Book Review. Retrieved Sept 19, 2005, from www.omegactr.com/OSource/PDFs/OSSP03-2-22.pdf

46. Pick, M. (2005). Anxiety in women — causes, symptoms and natural relief. Retrieved Sept 17, 2005, from http://www.womentowomen.com/depressionanxietyandmood/anxiety.asp

47. Pinto, D. (2003). Book Review: Body Wisdom by Sharon Giammatteo, Ph.D., (2002), North Atlantic Books, 210 pages. Energy Currents: Journal of Polarity Therapy.

48. Pinto, D. (2003). Doorways to structure: Strain/Counterstrain. Energy Currents: Journal of Polarity Therapy.

49. Rogers, S. (2005). Case Report Academic success with CranioSacral Therapy. Latitudes, vol. 1, no. 1; published by Association for Comprehensive NeuroTherapy, from http://www.latitudes.org/articles/craniosacral.html

50. Sheridan, V. (2000). Healing Hands. South China Morning Post, June 28. from http://www.thebodygroup.com/news/scmp0600.htm

51. Warren, M. (1999). Integrative Fascial Release (IFR). Dynamic Chiropractic, April 5, Volume 17, Issue 08 from http://www.chiroweb.com/archives/17/08/21.html

52. Weiselfish, S. (1993). Developmental manual therapy for physical rehabilitation for the neurologic patient. Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Dissertation Services.

53. Weiselfish-Giammatteo, S. (1994). Manual therapy with muscle energy technique. West Hartford, CT: ANA Publishing. www.CenterIMT.com

54. Weiselfish-Giammatteo, S., & Giammatteo, T. (2000). Ex 2 : functional exercise program for head and neck problems. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books. www.CenterIMT.com

55. Weiselfish-Giammatteo, S., & Giammatteo, T. (2001). Integrative manual therapy, for the upper and lower extremities. volume II (Rev. ed.). Berkeley, Calif.: North Atlantic Books. www.CenterIMT.com

56. Weiselfish-Giammatteo, S., & Giammatteo, T. (2001). Ex 1 : functional exercise program for women's and men's health issues. Bloomfield, CT; Berkeley, CA.: ANA Pub. : North Atlantic Books. www.CenterIMT.com

57. Weiselfish-Giammatteo, S., & Giammatteo, T. (2002). Body wisdom : light touch for optimal health. Berkeley, Calif.: North Atlantic Books. www.CenterIMTc.om

58. Weiselfish-Giammatteo, S., & Giammatteo, T. (2002). Elimination Diet A New Health Care Tool. Bloomfield, CT: ANA Publishing. www.CenterIMT.com

59. Weiselfish-Giammatteo, S., & Giammatteo, T. (2003). Integrative manual therapy for biomechanics : application of muscle energy and 'beyond' technique : treatment of the spine, ribs, and extremities. Berkeley, Calif.: North Atlantic Books. www.CenterIMT.com

60. Weiselfish-Giammatteo, S., & Giammatteo, T. (2003). Anatomic imagery for pain and dysfunction. Bloomfield, CT: Dialogues in Contemporary Rehabilitation. ww/w.CenterIMT.com

61. Weiselfish-Giammatteo, S., J. B. Kain, et al. (2005). Integrative manual therapy for the connective tissue system : myofascial release. Berkeley, Calif., North Atlantic Books.

62. Wetzler, G. (2003). Integrative Manual Therapy, 2005, from http://www.iaath.com/treatments/integrative.shtml

63. Wheeler, L. (2004). Advanced Strain Counterstrain. Massage Therapy Journal, 43 Winter(4), from http://www.amtamassage.org/journal/winter05_journal/mtjWinter05.html

64. Yonemoto, S. (2005). Staying Young keeping the "balance" in your life. Cascades The Monterey Park Cascades, Volume V, No.VII Citywide News for Business, Community and Education July 1, 2005. from ci.monterey-park.ca.us/docs/july_05_pages_1_to_9.pdf

65. Yonemoto, S. (2005). Integrative Manual Therapy. Arroyo Monthly, News Managed by CzarNews Southland Publishing. Apr 18, 2005: from http://arroyomonthly.com/news.php?a=6

Saturday, December 24, 2005

Topographical Anatomy Websites

My Favorite Topographical Anatomy or Surface Anatomy Sites

http://www.med.umich.edu/lrc/coursepages/M1/anatomy/html/surface/back/back.html
http://anatomy.uams.edu/anatomyhtml/gross.html
http://www.vh.org/welcome/tour/index.html
http://www.wikimd.org/index.php?title=Gray%27s_Anatomy
http://www.onlinehealthresources.com/Publications/

Friday, December 02, 2005

Favorite Quotes

"Disease, in the average case, is due to disturbance of structure. Even in cases of disease resulting from abuse, there is often found some structural change.....The function of a joint is movement. Ligaments and muscles restrict this movement. If force is applied, this restriction is in a measure, overcome, and consequently, the tissues around the joint are injured. Nature sends out an exudate, which forms a splint, the ligaments become thickened, in short, we have a typical lesion.....Anyone can become an invalid by disobeying the laws of nature."
- Marion Edward Clark, D.O. 1906.

"I should like to be able to love my country and still love justice." -- Albert Camus.

"To study the phenomenon of disease without books is to sail an uncharted sea, while to study books without patients is not to go to sea at all." -- Sir William Osler

"The significant problems we face cannot be solved at the same level of thinking we were at when we created them." - Albert Einstein

"He who joyfully marches in rank and file has already earned my contempt. He has been given a large brain by mistake, since for him the spinal cord would suffice." - Albert Einstein

"Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful committed citizens can change the world; indeed it is the only thing that ever has." - Margaret Mead.

"My wife and I are focused on the reduction of suffering by mazimizing the structure and function of relationships." - Linus Pauling

Sunday, November 20, 2005

Essay - Autism and Integrative Manual Therapy

Autism, One of the Many Labels Addressed by IMT
by Kimberly Burnham, IMTC, PhD Candidate

Working with the underlying cause, is the way massage therapists, physical therapists and psychologists trained in Integrative Manual Therapy (IMT) address autistic children or people with autistic like behavior.

At CenterIMT we have extensive experience treating autistic children ranging in age from small children to teenagers. We have seen remarkable results, more importantly, we have seen children who had a label of autism, recover and thrive in their lives.. The child often rejoins other children in the regular school system and interacts normally with their friends and family.

We see children who have a label of autism for a variety of reasons. Some children have dysfunctions of the tentorium or cranial diaphragm which crosses the head at about the level of the ears. This contributes to sensitivity to auditory stimulus (sensitivity to sound) due to the tensions on the ear complex. It can also contribute to visual dysfunctions because the cranial nerves that innervate the muscles of the eyes and facial muscles travel through the tentorium and can be compressed by a torque in the tentorium. We work with hands on techniques to normalize the balance within the connective tissues, blood vessels and neural tissue within the head.

Other children have a diagnosis of autism but what is contributing to the behavior is pain in the head or elsewhere in the body. These children see great results through IMT treatment to address and resolve that pain, where ever it may be. We work with people with headaches, back pain, joint, muscles pain and much more.

Visual dysfunctions can also lead to frustration, sensitivity to visual stimulus, and aggressive behavior, typical of some autistic children. Kimberly Burnham, clinical director for CenterIMT Boulder is also the director of our VisionIMT program addressing a variety of visual dysfunctions in children and adults. The mother of a two year old born with a corneal ulcer, recently reported that through treatment at CenterIMT Boulder her son has significantly less tactile defensiveness.

Toxicity and immune system dysfunctions can also lead to a diagnosis of autism. We work with a wide range of immune system techniques from decompression of areas of detoxification, such as the liver or thymus to recommending dietary changes and elimination of preservatives, additives and artificial sweeteners. We work with a number of children who are also labeled "failure to thrive". These children greatly benefit from our skill with immune system dysfunctions. The digestive system improves, the immune system improves and they start to grow, develop and function normally.

Many parents, wonder whether their autistic child will tolerate hands on treatment. We are comfortable working in a clinical setting with autistic children and often they come to love the gentle hands on treatment.

The first two hours with one 6 year old boy was more like a wrestling match than treatment, but the therapist persisted. The next time, he came in for treatment the therapist geared up for another wrestling match, only to find that the boy jumped up on the massage table and laid down ready for treatment when asked to do so at the beginning of the session. Our experience tells us that if you decrease a child’s pain, they are very compliant.

We also have a range of easy to follow "homework exercises" for the parents to participate in their child’s recover. We are happy to talk with the parent of any child in need of treatment. We would like to help you meet your goals for your child, where ever they are on their path to a healthy active life.



Autism Presentation Nov 19, 2005 Verona, Italy Kimberly Burnham, IMTC, PhD Candidate

Science fiction writer, Arthur C. Clark once said, “Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.”

At CenterIMT the magic is the children who feel better and function better, the parents who enlarge the dreams they have for their children’s futures and the therapists who see positive growth and development in their clients.

The techniques used at CenterIMT to treat children with autism and other developmental dysfunctions are not magic, they are a form of advanced technology based on clinical evidence.

At CenterIMT we use Integrative Manual Therapy -- a hands on treatment using touch, pressure and knowledge of anatomy and physiology – to help children grow healthier and reach their goals.

The mother of one boy reports: "We are also going to change to an entirely different school this year. Carl has asked for it because he says he is so different now than he was several years ago and he wants to go where kids don't know him. He feels that people aren't allowing for these changes. He is so right."

Integrative Manual Therapy (IMT) techniques can be placed in three categories.

The First:

1. Therapists work with biomechnical techniques, using pressure, positioning, mobilization and movement to shift tissues for better movement of joints, muscles, blood flow and improved drainage.

The biomechanical and postural problems of children with autism differ from other children. Some of these joint related dysfunctions contribute to pain and behavioral dysfunctions.

In 1992 Kohen-Rax and Volkmar noted that “The postural patterns of children with autism differed from those observed in normal children, in mentally retarded children, and in adults with vestibular disorders.

In comparison to normal children the autistic subjects were less likely to exhibit age-related changes in postural performance and postures were more variable and less stable with more lateral sway.

Autistic subjects also exhibited ... more "stressful" postures, putting excessive weight on one foot, one toe, or one heel.”. (Kohen-Raz et al. 1992)

Improvements in structure, posture and the ability to walk, run and play are the traditional realm of manual therapies. At CenterIMT we assess how structural problems negatively influence movement, contribute to pain and add to behavioral problems.

An analysis of gait indicates that, rather than gait parameters or balance control, the main components affected in autistic children during locomotion are the goal of the action, the orientation towards this goal and the definition of the trajectory due probably to an impairment of movement planning. (Vernazza-Martin, et al., 2005).

Some of these structural problems of the pelvis and sacrum contribute to tensions on the spinal cord and brain tissue contributing to cranial dysfunctions and a lack of blood flow to the brain. Integrative Manual Therapist work to decrease muscle tensions, releasing joint dysfunctions and improving blood flow to the brain.

In the medical literature autism has been associated with microcephaly, temporal lobe dysfunction, particularly the medial aspect of the temporal lobe and the superior temporal sulcus. This is the part of the brain closely associated with the ears, hearing and sensitivity to sound.

Autistic like behavior has also been linked to other brain structures, such as the amygdala and hippocampus. When the container - the cranium - is dysfunctional, this contributes to abnormalities in brain function.

”The superior temporal sulcus areas are involved in highest level of cortical integration of both sensory and limbic information. Moreover, it is now recognized as a key cortical area of the "social brain" and is implicated in social perceptual skills that are characteristically impaired in autism. Therefore, the convergent anatomical and functional temporal abnormalities observed in autism may be important in the understanding of brain behavior relationships in this severe developmental disorder. (Boddaert and Chabane, et al. 2004).

Two independent studies described a lack of blood flow in the bilateral temporal lobes of the brain in autistic children. The study noted that the more severe the autistic syndrome, the more cerebral blood flow is low in this region, suggesting that left superior temporal hypoperfusion is related to autistic behavior severity.” (Gendry Meresse, I., M. Zilbovicius, et al. (2005). The temporal regions of the brain are implicated in social perception, language, and "theory-of-mind," abilities that are impaired in autism.

Integrative Manual Therapy techniques can improve head and neck motion, which facilitates improved blood flow, increases drainage and decreases neural tissue tension. We particularly find that problems of the tentorium, the connective tissue membrane traversing the cranium between the temporal bones and ears contributes to autistic like behavior, particularly sensitivity to sound and tactile defensiveness of the head.

A 2005 study found a significant correlation was found between parental ratings reflecting autistic symptomatology and the measure of grey matter density in the junction area involving the amygdala, hippocampus and entorhinal cortex.

The data reveal a pattern of impaired and relatively preserved mnemonic function that is consistent with a hippocampal abnormality of developmental origin.

The structural imaging data highlight abnormalities in several brain regions previously implicated in ASD, including the medial temporal lobes. (Salmond, 2005)

When a seven year old boy with attention deficient disorder and learning disabilities came in for his second Integrative Manual Therapy treatment. I asked him what he had notice or what had changed after his first treatment. His father rolled his eyes as if to say, why are you asking a 7 year old what changed. The boy said, my head doesn’t hurt so much. The father said, you never told me your head hurt.

Sometimes poor joint and soft tissue function is causing the child pain, which is contributing to the behavior. By using IMT to decrease pain, the child has more choices and options in how they interact with the world.

Another mother pleased that her son was developing a better sense of himself re-counted this experience: "He has also started to defend himself, physically. Last Sunday we were at a birthday party. There was a moon-bouncer toy that the kids were jumping in, but only 3 kids at a time were supposed to be in it. Greg and 2 other kids were jumping in it when this 5 year old boy decided he wanted to jump as well and he tried to drag Greg out by pulling his shirt by the shoulder. Greg WHACKED him! The 5 year old tried to pull him out again and Greg gave him another WHACK! Although I don't encourage hitting, I am taking this as another positive sign!"

Another mother recounts:
"I have also noticed a big change in his gait. His heels have really dropped down and he heel strikes now instead of walking on his toes. Both arms are swinging with walking. They never did before."
"I am weaning him off the use of his gameboy, TV, computers. They were a great help when he couldn't tolerate his environment but now they are a detriment. He is developing better social skills and other interests are developing."

Noting that as her son grew healthier his behavior also improved, one mother said, "His overall health is excellent. He has gained another 6 pounds since June bringing his weight to 77 pounds. He is growing like a weed!!!! He is no longer that sickly, malnourished-looking kid that you first met. As a matter of fact he is quite husky."

The second way to describe Integrative Manual Therapy techniques is as a system of reflex points.

2. Integrative Manual Therapist consider mechanical problems as well as using a system of reflex points to improve health in children with autism.

There are many treatment modalities that use reflex points. Acupuncture for example stimulates meridian points to create a shift in the tissue.

A short list of conditions recognized by the World Health Organization to benefit from acupuncture includes neurological and musculoskeletal conditions, emotional and psychological disturbances, circulatory disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory conditions and more.

In a 2003 article entitled the Benefits of Osteopathic Treatment for the Pediatric Patient, American Osteopath, Paul Capobianco, notes that Chapman reflexes can be effectively used for a variety of pediatric conditions including autism.

The reflex points used at CenterIMT with children with autism were developed by Sharon W. Giammatteo. Stimulation of these points are clinically found to influence a child’s ability to learn and develop.

Steven was diagnosed with Smith McGinnis - a genetically based disorder contributing to aggressive, behavior and mental retardation. His mother was told she should institutionalize him, that he would always be a danger to himself and others and would never fit into society. Today Steven, is in a very bright 11 year old in a Montesorri school. He has been playing piano for 3 years and can play Bach backwards, if he wants. He is a very sweet boy who looks at the world in a unique way. He has so far exceeded predictors of outcome, that most people would not believe that he has Smith McGinnis. He has been coming for IMT treatment for about 7 years.
A third way of describing IMT is in the use of techniques to address certain rhythms in the body.

3. Integrative Manual Therapists treat structural dysfunctions and uses reflex points and certain rhythms in the body. These motilities or rhythms are reflective of the function of the nervous system tissue and other tissues in the body.


By way of an example, if someone has a heart attack and you do CPR.....CPR could be described as using a specific pressure on a specific location to normalize the rhythm of the heart. At no time is the heart actually touched. There are clothes, skin, muscles, bones and other soft tissue between the heart and the hands, and yet with CPR many people use pressure to successfully normalize the hearts rhythm.

At CenterIMT we use specific pressure in specific locations to normalize the rhythm of the nervous system tissue, the digestive system, and other structures in children and adults.

Some people ask if we can really feel these rhythms, but is it any harder to believe that someone can take a sip of wine and tell you the year, the country and who bottled the wine.

At CenterIMT we are taking sensory information, touch rather than taste and smell and converting it into something else. Rather than a year and a country we use our experience to interpret the sensory information to mean a certain part of the brain is or is not functioning properly or that the bones around the ears are not moving well.

We can easily check whether a wine taster is correct or not by looking at the bottle. At CenterIMT our clients know whether we are correct or not because they feel better, function better and look healthier.

Six years ago I started treating a non verbal 5 year old boy with severe autism. Treating is perhaps the wrong word, because the first two hours was mostly a wrestling match, but the treatment made a difference. I think it decreased his pain, because the second time I saw him, he laid down on the table, watched a video and I never had trouble treating him again.

Today he is in a Waldorf school, reading at a second grade level and saying things like, “Momma we have to talk about the toy train from Disney.”

Hands-on treatment focused on circadian rhythms, such as the craniosacral rhythm, can contribute to improvements in sleep patterns and improved circadian rhythms.

Autism has been linked with a number of circadian rhythm dysfunctions, including sleep disturbances.

“Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairment in communication, social interaction, repetitive behaviors and difficulty adapting to novel experiences. The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical (HPA) system responds consistently to perceived novel or unfamiliar situations and can serve as an important biomarker of the response to a variety of different stimuli. Previous research has suggested that children with autism may exhibit dysfunction of the HPA system, but it is not clear whether altered neuroendrocrine regulation or altered responsiveness underlies the differences between children with and without autism. In the results both groups showed expected circadian variation with higher cortisol concentration in morning than in the evening samples. The children with autism, but not typical children, showed a more variable circadian rhythm as well as statistically significant elevations in cortisol following exposure to a novel, nonsocial stimulus. Conclusions: The results suggest that children with autism process and respond idiosyncratically to novel and threatening events resulting in an exaggerated cortisol response.” (Corbett, B. A., S. Mendoza, et al. (2005).

There are a number of manual therapy techniques to address adrenal function by improving the movement of the rib cage surrounding the kidney and adrenals as well as facilitate improved movement of the spine which allows for better neural flow to the organs. Reflex Points for improved kidney and adrenal function and structure along with motilities reflective of stress levels, shock in the body and organ function.

One study noted a relationship between autism, sleep and epilepsy. and present the view that “sleep is abnormal in individuals with autistic spectrum disorders.
Epilepsy and sleep have reciprocal relationships, with sleep facilitating seizures and seizures adversely affecting sleep architecture.

The hypothesis put forth is that identifying and treating sleep disorders, which are potentially caused by or contributed to by autism, may impact favorably on seizure control and on daytime behavior.” (Malow, B. A. (2004).

Children with epilepsy and other seizure disorders have also been successfully treated at CenterIMT.

Pietro: In the week before I started treating him with Integrative Manual Therapy (IMT), he had 20 severe tonic clonic seizures and a multitude of smaller seizures lasting from a few seconds to 30 seconds.. His mother gave him 3 valium that week. It is the only thing that calms him down, but he lives in a coma-like state with the seizures and the valium.
A month ago he came to CenterIMT, a multidicipline clinic, where treatments include manual therapy, exercise rehabilitation programs and nutritional recommendations. In the three weeks after he started getting IMT, he had 20 tonic-clonic seizures and only a few of the shorter smaller seizures. He had two seizure free period one 6 days and the other 6 days. When he started to come for therapy, he was on 1000 mg of seizure medication. Now, his doctor has decreased the medications gradually to 250 mg.
He has had a few "bad days" in the last month but his mother reports that his speech is better, he is playing better with his 2 year old brother, he is more interested in playing with toys and running around outside, he listens and joins into conversations more.

“An abnormal circadian pattern of melatonin was found in a group of young adults with an extreme autism syndrome. .... In others, a parallel was evidenced between thyroid function and impairment in verbal communication. There appears to be a tendency for various types of neuroendocrinological abnormalities in autistics, and melatonin, as well as possibly TSH and perhaps prolactin, could serve as biochemical variables of the biological parameters of the disease.” (Nir, I., D. Meir, et al. (1995).


Again Integrative Manual Therapist look for dysfunctions in the musculoskeletal and fascial systems that are causing a compression or a tension on the neural and endocrine organs that they protect and house. This contributes to our success both with children with autism and children with seizures.

Patzold and Richdale, in a 1998 study noted that the “aim of the study was to investigate the specificity of sleep problems in children with autism and further explore the currently unclear association between sleep problems and daytime behaviour.
“Results showed that children in the PDD group exhibited qualitatively and quantitatively different sleep patterns to nonautistic control children.
They go on to discuss the findings in the “current literature concerning circadian rhythm dysfunction, social difficulties, and abnormal melatonin levels in children with autism.” (Patzold, L. M., A. L. Richdale, et al. (1998).

"When we first started with you, Carol was having a definite sleep pattern disturbance. She would wake up 3 to 4 nights per month anywhere between 3:00 and 5:00 am and could not fall back to sleep until 6:00 or 7:00 in the morning. This happened to her every month. I can now say that the last time she went through that was the month before she started therapy with you."

Another area in which we have seen remarkable changes is in children with speech and swallowing issues. Improvements in drooling.

Working with speech involves a number of types of treatment. We use hands on techniques to normalize the muscles in the face and neck, allowing for normal blood flow to the soft tissue involved with speech production. Reflex points and motilities are palpated to assess the affects of the brainstem, cranial nerves as well as Broca’s speech area on the lack of speech. Then manual therapy techniques are used to focus on improving blood flow to the nervous system tissue and drainage and detoxification of the tissues.

One mother described her daughter’s progress: "Her language is coming along beautifully. She is talking more and more everyday. Every argument she gives me is music to my ears (Believe it or not!). She actually told me yesterday I love cupcakes, as we were putting them into the oven together. I always knew that she liked them because she would eat them, but to hear those words out of her mouth is a joy that I myself can not express."

Another mother reports, "I have been wanting to update you on Carl. He is doing so well!!! After he was seen in February and working with the subcortical techniques he continues to transform. His hearing and ability to match pitch in sound has improved phenomenally. His music teacher is a bit shocked. He takes piano and voice lessons. When we started a year ago he could not match any pitch at all and they called him tone deaf. He used to speak in a monotone voice. He has been the topic of conversation at the music conservatory because they have never seen this. The other interesting thing that started happening in music is he not only matches the pitch he is improvising with harmony. It happened almost over night."

One of the classes at the Connecticut School of Integrative Manual Therapy focuses on the treatment of subcortical tissues of the brain, including the limbic system. The treatment includes a look at the cranium - the container, the connective tissue within the cranium - the dura and the blood flow to the head and brain. There are specific technique using reflex points and motilities or rhythms aimed at improving the function of the brainstem, limbic system, the amygdala, the hippocampus and other brain tissue.

"Gary's biggest gains were in speech. He uses vocalizations and gestures to request toys or food and spontaneously produces different types of consonant-vowel combinations when vocalizing. He has increased eye-contact and the ability to attend for 20 to 30 minutes in speech therapy sessions."

At CenterIMT we also use a combination of nutritional supplementation, herbal medicine, and homeopathy. We consider what is in the diet that is contributing to problems, such as artificial sweeteners, preservative, gluten and casen. We make recommendations about what to add to the diet: fresh fruits and vegetables, “good fats” - olive oils, avocados, fish oils. We recommend green tea for its antioxidant properties.

One mother told us: "He has calmed down a lot! He is no longer that "superball" bouncing off the walls that I once described to you. The vitamins are working well."

"He decided on his own he wanted to go off gluten. He is doing great! We have tried to take him off many times and it was always a bit of a battle and we were never very successful. This time he is reading the labels himself, self monitoring what he eats. We have noticed huge changes, mostly with behavior and attitude. He has noticed less pain in his body and no more tummy aches and migraines after eating. His thinking is much more clear and different. The only problem is that if he accidentally gets in to gluten now that he has been off for awhile, it knocks him flat. Severe stomachache and migraine within about 20 minutes. If he gets into gluten there is definitely more autistic like behavior. It is almost like he disappears for awhile. He is beginning to think gluten is "evil" as he says. He has become incredibly more cooperative. Everyone is thankful for this!"

The goal of the Autism Recovery Program at CenterIMT is to restore health, hope and optimal function to all children and adults diagnosed with Autism or autistic-like behavior.
Our CenterIMT mission is two-fold: 1) To educate the client diagnosed with Autism and their family about the body’s ability to heal, thus working to restore hope in their potential for recovery. 2) To provide the Autism population with the most recent and advanced diagnostic, structural and functional manual therapies available.

The Autism team strongly believes all children and adults diagnosed with Autism or who have autistic-like behavior have the potential for recovery, beyond the traditional predictors of outcome.

We believe there is no one single answer for Autism; however, with a combined approach of treating the entire body, we see that recovery is possible. Because it is vital for the children and adults diagnosed with Autism to play an active role in their recovery process, we feel it is empowering for the client to participate in the goal setting process, functional rehabilitation, and nutritional wellness programs.

Our team is committed to providing ongoing support to clients and their families throughout their recovery process. We are dedicated to further advancement of techniques through ongoing clinical research.
We want every parent to be able to say, as did one client, "It is very exciting for all of us. You have given me a positive feeling and of course positive results for our child. I thank you from the bottom of my heart."

References

1. Bachevalier, J. (1994). Medial temporal lobe structures and autism: a review of clinical and experimental findings. Neuropsychologia, 32(6), 627-648.
2. Bachevalier, J., Malkova, L., & Mishkin, M. (2001). Effects of selective neonatal temporal lobe lesions on socioemotional behavior in infant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Behav Neurosci, 115(3), 545-559.
3. Bayly, M. B. (2005). Concept-matching in the brain depends on serotonin and gamma-frequency shifts. Med Hypotheses, 65(1), 149-151.
4. Bigler, E. D., Tate, D. F., Neeley, E. S., Wolfson, L. J., Miller, M. J., Rice, S. A., et al. (2003). Temporal lobe, autism, and macrocephaly. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol, 24(10), 2066-2076.
5. Boddaert, N., Chabane, N., Gervais, H., Good, C. D., Bourgeois, M., Plumet, M. H., et al. (2004). Superior temporal sulcus anatomical abnormalities in childhood autism: a voxel-based morphometry MRI study. Neuroimage, 23(1), 364-369.
6. Corbett, B. A., Mendoza, S., Abdullah, M., Wegelin, J. A., & Levine, S. (2005). Cortisol circadian rhythms and response to stress in children with autism. Psychoneuroendocrinology.
7. Filinger, E. J., Garcia-Cotto, M. A., Vila, S., Gerbaldo, H., & Jerez, D. (1987). Possible relationship between pervasive developmental disorders and platelet monoamine oxidase activity. Braz J Med Biol Res, 20(2), 161-164.
8. Gendry Meresse, I., Zilbovicius, M., Boddaert, N., Robel, L., Philippe, A., Sfaello, I., et al. (2005). Autism severity and temporal lobe functional abnormalities. Ann Neurol, 58(3), 466-469.
9. Hetzler, B. E., & Griffin, J. L. (1981). Infantile autism and the temporal lobe of the brain. J Autism Dev Disord, 11(3), 317-330.
10. Kohen-Raz, R., Volkmar, F. R., & Cohen, D. J. (1992). Postural control in children with autism. J Autism Dev Disord, 22(3), 419-432.
11. Majebe, M. C. (2002). Chinese Medicine for autism: Dr. M. Cissy Majebe explores an Eastern approach to help disabled children. New Life Journal. Malow, B. A. (2004). Sleep disorders, epilepsy, and autism. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev, 10(2), 122-125.
12. Martineau, J., Schmitz, C., Assaiante, C., Blanc, R., & Barthelemy, C. (2004). Impairment of a cortical event-related desynchronisation during a bimanual load-lifting task in children with autistic disorder. Neurosci Lett, 367(3), 298-303.
13. Nir, I., Meir, D., Zilber, N., Knobler, H., Hadjez, J., & Lerner, Y. (1995). Brief report: circadian melatonin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and cortisol levels in serum of young adults with autism. J Autism Dev Disord, 25(6), 641-654.
14. Ornitz, E. M. (1983). The functional neuroanatomy of infantile autism. Int J Neurosci, 19(1-4), 85-124.
15. Patzold, L. M., Richdale, A. L., & Tonge, B. J. (1998). An investigation into sleep characteristics of children with autism and Asperger's Disorder. J Paediatr Child Health, 34(6), 528-533.
16. Paul Capobianco, D. (2003). Benefits of Osteopathic Treatment For The Pediatric Patient. Retrieved Oct, 2005
17. Salmond, C. H., Ashburner, J., Connelly, A., Friston, K. J., Gadian, D. G., & Vargha-Khadem, F. (2005). The role of the medial temporal lobe in autistic spectrum disorders. Eur J Neurosci, 22(3), 764-772.
18. Schmitz, C., Martineau, J., Barthelemy, C., & Assaiante, C. (2003). Motor control and children with autism: deficit of anticipatory function? Neurosci Lett, 348(1), 17-20.
19. Vernazza-Martin, S., Martin, N., Vernazza, A., Lepellec-Muller, A., Rufo, M., Massion, J., et al. (2005). Goal directed locomotion and balance control in autistic children. J Autism Dev Disord, 35(1), 91-102.
20. Wimpory, D., Nicholas, B., & Nash, S. (2002). Social timing, clock genes and autism: a new hypothesis. J Intellect Disabil Res, 46(Pt 4), 352-358.


Presentation References

Bachevalier, J. (1994). "Medial temporal lobe structures and autism: a review of clinical and experimental findings." Neuropsychologia 32(6): 627-48.
Although substantive understanding of brain dysfunction in autism remains meager, clinical evidence as well as animal brain research on the effects of early damage to selective brain system have now yielded enough knowledge that some provisional hypotheses concerning the etiology of autism can be generated. Basically, the underlying premise of this review is that a major dysfunction of the autistic brain resides in neural mechanisms of the structures in the medial temporal lobe, and, perhaps, more specifically the amygdaloid complex. This review begins with a summary of clinical evidence of the involvement of the medial temporal lobe structures in autism. The major behavioral disturbances seen in monkeys that had received neonatal lesions of the medial temporal lobe structures are then described. From this survey it can be seen that distinct patterns of memory losses and socioemotional abnormalities emerge as a result of extent of damage to the medial temporal lobe structures. The potential value of the experimental findings for an understanding of neural dysfunction in autism as well as directions of future research are discussed in the final section of the review.

Bachevalier, J., L. Malkova, et al. (2001). "Effects of selective neonatal temporal lobe lesions on socioemotional behavior in infant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)." Behav Neurosci 115(3): 545-59.
Normal infant monkeys and infant monkeys with neonatal damage to either the medial temporal lobe or the inferior temporal visual area were assessed in dyadic social interactions at 2 and 6 months of age. Unlike the normal infant monkeys, which developed strong affiliative bonds and little or no behavioral disturbances, the lesioned monkeys (each of which was observed with an unoperated control) exhibited socioemotional abnormalities and aberrant behaviors. The socioemotional changes predominated at 6 months of age and were particularly severe in monkeys with medial temporal lesions. In both the pattern and time course, the socioemotional deficits produced by the neonatal medial temporal lesions bear a striking resemblance to the behavioral syndrome in children with autism. Further analysis of these lesion-induced abnormalities in nonhuman primates may therefore provide insight into this debilitating human developmental disorder.

Bayly, M. B. (2005). "Concept-matching in the brain depends on serotonin and gamma-frequency shifts." Med Hypotheses 65(1): 149-51.
A Eureka moment has three components--puzzle, solution and hedonic response (elation etc.). Puzzle and solution come together in the association cortex and are immensely variable from instance to instance. By contrast, the hedonic response is subcortical and almost one-dimensional; how is it triggered? It is triggered by the relation between puzzle and solution, a good fit or good match, like the relation between two words that rhyme. In 1999 J.W. Fost proposed that serotonin is a crucial agent; here it is proposed that a frequency-jump initiates the serotonin causal chain, as energy shifts from 20 to 40 Hz or some such jump. The hypothesis assumes that any discrete idea is embodied in a time-course of electrical and chemical changes in a network of neurons, and that keeping the idea in mind involves repeating more or less the same time-course over and over. If observed frequencies in the gamma range result from such repetition, the period for running the time-course once is of the order of 25 ms. Also accepted is the suggestion that, although the brain runs many processes simultaneously, in the conscious mind attention focuses on only one idea at a time; an attempt to "think of two things at once" actually results only in giving them attention alternately, with a repeat-time of the order of 50 ms and frequency 20 Hz. Only if the two time-courses have certain elements in common will there be any repetition at 40 Hz. Now suppose a thinker takes up a problem and makes a succession of attempts at solution. As long as he thinks of wrong answers, he generates activity only at 20 Hz, but when he hits upon the right answer, activity at 40 Hz shows up. This is a highly oversimplified scenario but its essential features might carry over to the vastly more complicated workings of a real brain. The virtue of the proposed mechanism is its generality. Under the proposal, any ideas in mind that do not match give no result but as soon as two ideas match, results ensue. This behavior in the model, wholly general except in one specific respect, is needed for conformity with real human brains' behavior. In normal people, production of this "link-joy" is an important reward mechanism and malfunction of this system may contribute to Capgras syndrome and some varieties of autism.

Bigler, E. D., D. F. Tate, et al. (2003). "Temporal lobe, autism, and macrocephaly." AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 24(10): 2066-76.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Because of increased prevalence of macrocephaly in autism, head size must be controlled for in studies that examine volumetric findings of the temporal lobe in autistic subjects. We prospectively examined temporal lobe structures in individuals with autism who were normocephalic or macrocephalic (head circumference > 97th percentile) and in control subjects who were normocephalic or macrocephalic or who had a reading disorder (unselected for head size). The rationale for the reading disorder group was to have control subjects with potential temporal lobe anomalies, but who were not autistic. METHODS: In individuals aged 7-31 years, autism was diagnosed on the basis of standardized interview and diagnostic criteria. Control subjects ranged in age from 7 to 22 years. All subjects were male. MR morphometrics of the major temporal lobe structures were based on ANALYZE segmentation routines, in which total brain volume and total intracranial volume (TICV) were calculated. Both group comparisons and developmental analyses were performed. RESULTS: No distinct temporal lobe abnormalities of volume were observed once head size (TICV) was controlled for. In autistic and control subjects, robust growth patterns were observed in white and gray matter that differed little between the groups. Although subtle differences were observed in some structures (ie, less white matter volume in the region of the temporal stem and overall temporal lobe), none was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: No major volumetric anomalies of the temporal lobe were found in cases of autism when IQ, TICV, and age were controlled. Temporal lobe abnormalities that may be associated with autism are likely to be more related to functional organization within the temporal lobe than to any gross volumetric difference.

Boddaert, N., N. Chabane, et al. (2004). "Superior temporal sulcus anatomical abnormalities in childhood autism: a voxel-based morphometry MRI study." Neuroimage 23(1): 364-9.
The underlying neurobiology of autism, a severe pervasive developmental disorder, remains unknown. Few neocortical brain MRI abnormalities have been reported. Using rest functional brain imaging, two independent studies have described localized bilateral temporal hypoperfusion in children with primary autism. In order to search for convergent evidence of anatomical abnormalities in autistic children, we performed an anatomical MRI study using optimized whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM). High-resolution 3-D T1-weighted MRI data sets were acquired in 21 children with primary autism (mean age 9.3 +/- 2.2 years) and 12 healthy control children (mean age 10.8 +/- 2.7 years). By comparing autistic children to normal children, we found bilaterally significant decreases of grey matter concentration located in superior temporal sulcus (STS) (P < 0.05 corrected, after small volume correction; SVC). Children with autism were also found to have a decrease of white matter concentration located in the right temporal pole and in cerebellum (P < 0.05, corrected) compared to normal children. These results suggest that autism is associated with bilateral anatomical abnormalities localized in the STS and are remarkably consistent with functional hypoperfusion previously reported in children with autism. The multimodal STS areas are involved in highest level of cortical integration of both sensory and limbic information. Moreover, the STS is now recognized as a key cortical area of the "social brain" and is implicated in social perceptual skills that are characteristically impaired in autism. Therefore, the convergent anatomical and functional temporal abnormalities observed in autism may be important in the understanding of brain behavior relationships in this severe developmental disorder.

Corbett, B. A., S. Mendoza, et al. (2005). "Cortisol circadian rhythms and response to stress in children with autism." Psychoneuroendocrinology.
Background: Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairment in communication, social interaction, repetitive behaviors and difficulty adapting to novel experiences. The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical (HPA) system responds consistently to perceived novel or unfamiliar situations and can serve as an important biomarker of the response to a variety of different stimuli. Previous research has suggested that children with autism may exhibit dysfunction of the HPA system, but it is not clear whether altered neuroendrocrine regulation or altered responsiveness underlies the differences between children with and without autism. In order to provide preliminary data concerning HPA regulation and responsiveness, we compared circadian rhythms and response to a non-social, environmental stressor in children with and without autism. Methods: Circadian rhythms of cortisol were estimated in children with (N=12) and without (N=10) autism via analysis of salivary samples collected in the morning, afternoon and evening on 2 consecutive days. HPA responsiveness was assessed by examining the time course of changes in salivary cortisol in response to a mock MRI. Results: Both groups showed expected circadian variation with higher cortisol concentration in morning than in the evening samples. The children with autism, but not typical children, showed a more variable circadian rhythm as well as statistically significant elevations in cortisol following exposure to a novel, nonsocial stimulus. Conclusions: The results suggest that children with autism process and respond idiosyncratically to novel and threatening events resulting in an exaggerated cortisol response.

Filinger, E. J., M. A. Garcia-Cotto, et al. (1987). "Possible relationship between pervasive developmental disorders and platelet monoamine oxidase activity." Braz J Med Biol Res 20(2): 161-4.
1. The present study was undertaken to determine if the platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity of children with childhood-onset Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD), atypical PDD and autistic children differs from MAO of normal children of the same age. 2. The kinetic parameters of MAO activity (Km and Vmax for kynuramine as substrate in 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4 at 37 degrees C) were determined for platelets from autistic (N = 6), childhood onset PDD (N = 6) and atypical PDD (N = 6) children and 14 controls aged 6-10 years. 3. PDD children had significantly lower Km (4.41 +/- 0.26 vs 5.30 +/- 0.23 microM) and Vmax (16.77 +/- 1.56 vs 22.15 +/- 2.16 nmol h-1 mg protein-1) than control children. The reduction in Vmax was demonstrable in MAO activity measured with 100 microM substrate (14.93 +/- 1.13 vs 20.96 +/- 2.10 nmol h-1 mg-1). 4. These data show that childhood-onset PDD patients, in which the syndrome was complete, presented the lowest levels of platelet MAO activity.

Gendry Meresse, I., M. Zilbovicius, et al. (2005). "Autism severity and temporal lobe functional abnormalities." Ann Neurol 58(3): 466-9.
Two independent studies12 have described bilateral temporal hypoperfusion in autistic children. Temporal regions are implicated in social perception, language, and "theory-of-mind," abilities that are impaired in autism. We investigated a putative relationship between cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measured at rest and clinical profile of 45 autistic children (Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised [ADI-R] scores). A whole-brain covariance analysis was performed. Significant negative correlation was observed between rCBF and ADI-R score in the left superior temporal gyrus. The more severe the autistic syndrome, the more rCBF is low in this region, suggesting that left superior temporal hypoperfusion is related to autistic behavior severity. Ann Neurol 2005;58:466-469.

Hetzler, B. E. and J. L. Griffin (1981). "Infantile autism and the temporal lobe of the brain." J Autism Dev Disord 11(3): 317-30.
Studies are reviewed that support the hypothesis that infantile autism results from a neuropathology of the temporal lobes of the brain. First, there are parallels between symptoms noted in autism and those found in the Kluver-Bucy and amnesic syndromes. Second, there is a similarity between developmental dysphasia and autism. Third, the formation of cross-modal associations may be deficient in autistic children, a symptom resembling aspects of Geschwind's disconnection syndromes. Finally, a large number of organic factors have been associated with the development of autism, some of these having specific implications for temporal lobe involvement. It is concluded that the main autistic symptoms are most consistent with a neurological model involving bilateral dysfunction of the temporal lobes. Individual differences in the extent of bilateral involvement and/or other coexistent neuropathologies could contribute to the heterogeneity of the autistic population.

Kohen-Raz, R., F. R. Volkmar, et al. (1992). "Postural control in children with autism." J Autism Dev Disord 22(3): 419-32.
Postural control was evaluated in samples of autistic, normal, and mentally retarded children in this pilot study using a recently developed, computerized posturographic procedure. A battery of postural positions was administered including postures involving some degree of "stress" (e.g., occluded vision or standing on pads). The postural patterns of children with autism differed from those observed in normal children, in mentally retarded children, and in adults with vestibular disorders. In comparison to normal children the autistic subjects were less likely to exhibit age-related changes in postural performance and postures were more variable and less stable with more lateral sway. Autistic subjects also exhibited a "paradoxical" response of greater stability with more "stressful" postures, putting excessive weight on one foot, one toe, or one heel. The implications for neuroanatomical models of autism are discussed.

Majebe, M. C. (2002). "Chinese Medicine for autism: Dr. M. Cissy Majebe explores an Eastern approach to help disabled children." New Life Journal.

The treatment of Autism with Chinese Medicine (CM) first began to interest me in 1993 when a parent brought a three-year-old, non-verbal child into the clinic. I acquired a special interest in the treatment of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders from working with this child.
Currently Autism is recognized as a developmental disability with primary symptomology affecting social interaction and communication skills. Autism is a behaviorally-defined syndrome. Within a Western framework, there are no clear causes of Autism, although it is believed to be a biological neurological disorder affecting brain function. There are strong indicators for a genetic basis, and there is also a growing concern that environmental toxins and pollutions may be contributing factors, as well as viral infections. Currently, there are no medical tests for the diagnosis of Autism. In regard to treatment, the only real option Western Medicine offers is intervention with early educational programs.
For those of you who may have little experience with Chinese Medicine, let me begin by saving that Chinese Medicine is a comprehensive health care system that has its own system of diagnostics. It includes not only acupuncture, but also herbal medicine, nutritional therapies, Tui Na (massage techniques), aromatherapy, spinal manipulations and lifestyle counseling. CM, as a system, allows the practitioner to utilize different combinations of techniques, based on the constitution and specific needs of the individual.
The World Health Organization recognizes Chinese Medicine's ability to treat many common disorders, including disorders of the bones, muscles and joints, respiratory, gastrointestinal, circulatory and urogenital disorders, addictions, eye, ear, nose and throat disorders and emotional and psychological disorders. It is this history of the effectiveness of CM with psychological and neurological disorders that provides a basis for the effective treatment of Autism.
In CM, Zang-Fu is a term for the organs of the human body. Many of the organ names are familiar terms. These terms refer not only to a physical organ but to the energetic functions of the organ as well. Each organ relates to an emotional response, sensory organ, and soft tissue. Autistic children often experience difficulties with sensory integration. In the treatment of Autism, the three primary organ systems of concern are the Heart, Spleen, and Kidneys; these organ ,system are associated with speech, hearing, and taste, respectively.
"On an emotional level, the state of the Heart determines a person's capacity to form meaningful relationships." This quote from The Foundations of Chinese Medicine, by Giovanni Maciocia, is paramount to the understanding of Autism within the framework of CM.
According to Chinese Medical theory, autistic individuals suffer from a Heart imbalance that inhibits connecting on an emotional level with other people, including their immediate families. A person with Heart imbalances might manifest a lack of joy in life, anxiety or inappropriate laughter and talking. A person with a Heart Qi disorder could either manifest with excessive talking or aphasia (problems with speaking or an inability to speak).
Children diagnosed with Autism may present with digestive anomalies that may he deemed irrelevant by Western Medicine Physicians. In CM these children exhibit signs and symptoms associated with Spleen Qi Deficiency. On an emotional level, persons with extreme Spleen Qi imbalances often manifest obsessive-compulsive behaviors.
Autism is usually diagnosed before the age of three. CM sees this disorder as having a Pre-natal origin, compounded by a Post-natal weakness. The Pre-natal component would translate as genetic influence, whereas the Post-natal aspect would relate to all that has occurred since birth. Pre-natal factors in Autism indicate Kidney involvement. Kidney Qi is important for brain development, along with Heart and Spleen, according to Chinese Medical theory.
Basic methods of diagnosis include observation of the patient, such as listening, smelling, examination by questioning and physical examination by palpation. Observation includes CM specific skills such as tongue, pulse and facial diagnosis. It also includes close attention to how the patient relates to and moves in the world.
In CM, imbalances arise from three different sources: external factors, internal factors and miscellaneous factors.
Wind, Heat, Fire, Cold, Dryness and Dampness are external pathogenic factors in CM. These factors create imbalances that lead to disease. In CM, Internal Pathological Factors are the Seven Emotions. Each of these emotions is associated with an organ system. Those that relate to Autism include: fear or shock that weakens the Kidney, over-pensiveness that weakens the Spleen and shock and anxiety that weakens the Heart. The over-pensiveness that is discussed in classical Chinese writings is related to the obsessive behaviors or obsessive thought patterns that often manifest in Autism.
Miscellaneous factors include genetic influences, poor nutrition, lack of exercise and excessive mental stimulation, such ms an inordinate amount of television viewing. Air pollutants, food additives and preservatives are other miscellaneous factors. Antibiotics and Immunizations are also considered miscellaneous factors.
Phlegm is the primary pathological factor related to the development of Autism in CM. In regard to Autism, Phlegm is generally an External Pathogenic Factor, but it can also manifest from Internal and miscellaneous causes. Phlegm is said to be either substantial or insubstantial, meaning that it can either be the mucous we expectorate and drool or a kind of "fog" that blocks the sensory, organs. This "fog" would present itself as poor concentration or hearing, a lack of response to external stimuli, etc. In CM, the diagnosis of Autism generally can be classified as either Phlegm Misting the Heart or Phlegm Fire Harassing the Heart.
The Autistic child will have symptoms that are linked to Heart, Spleen and Kidney imbalances. The Heart imbalance relates to the difficulties the child has in establishing meaningful emotional relationships with others, and communication and speech difficulties. The Spleen deficiency is linked to digestive anomalies that contribute to the development of Phlegm. Kidney involvement is related to the young age at which this condition develops.
The development of Autism is a multi-faceted pathway: There is no single direct cause and effect for Autism Spectrum Disorders in Chinese medicine though there are a set of cofactors that must be present. Recall that in CM, imbalances are related to External, Internal and Miscellaneous factors. The External and Internal factors can be a source of difficulty. but a major focus in Autism is on the Miscellaneous factors. Genetic factors can set the stage but there must be other cofactors in order for Autism to develop. Nutritional and lifestyle factors must be addressed in the treatment plan. The manifestations of Phlegm and the root cause of Phlegm must be addressed. It is due to the very different pathways in the development of Autism that makes it difficult to assign causality.
As I stated previously, Chinese Medicine treats the constitution and specific needs of the individual, not the disease. With a behaviorally-defined syndrome, such as Autism, such treatment is especially appropriate because the practitioner is able to accurately diagnosis and treat a patient who may be manifesting any number of diverse and seemingly unrelated symptoms. The foundation for effective treatment in CM would use a multi-tiered approach that includes synergistic CM modalities, such as herbal medicine, acupuncture, Tui Na (massage), nutrition, aromatherapy, and manipulative the rapies. This multi-tiered approach should include the intervention with early education treatment that Western medicine recommends.
Dr. M. Cissy Majebe, O.M.D., is director of the Chinese Acupuncture and Herbology Clinic in Asheville, N.C., for the last 17 years. Over the last 10 years Dr. Majebe's special pursuit in understanding that which plagues the children diagnosed with autism has directed her untiring research and studies at home and abroad.
COPYRIGHT 2002 Natural Arts COPYRIGHT 2004 Gale Group

Malow, B. A. (2004). "Sleep disorders, epilepsy, and autism." Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 10(2): 122-5.
The purpose of this review article is to describe the clinical data linking autism with sleep and epilepsy and to discuss the impact of treating sleep disorders in children with autism either with or without coexisting epileptic seizures. Studies are presented to support the view that sleep is abnormal in individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Epilepsy and sleep have reciprocal relationships, with sleep facilitating seizures and seizures adversely affecting sleep architecture. The hypothesis put forth is that identifying and treating sleep disorders, which are potentially caused by or contributed to by autism, may impact favorably on seizure control and on daytime behavior. The article concludes with some practical suggestions for the evaluation and treatment of sleep disorders in this population of children with autism.

Martineau, J., C. Schmitz, et al. (2004). "Impairment of a cortical event-related desynchronisation during a bimanual load-lifting task in children with autistic disorder." Neurosci Lett 367(3): 298-303.
In autism, the abilities of communication are affected, associated with abnormalities of cognitive, sensorial and motor development. In a previous study based on a load-lifting task, we showed impairment of anticipation in children with autism as evidenced by kinematics and eletromyographic recordings [Neurosci. Lett. 348 (2003) 17]. In the present study, we assessed the cortical counterparts of the use of anticipatory postural adjustments in a group of control children and in a group of children with autism. The tasks required maintaining a stable forearm position despite imposed or voluntary lifting of an object placed either on the controlateral forearm or on a support. We investigated the differences between the two groups of children on the Event-Related Desynchronisation (ERD) which precedes movement onset in adults [Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 46 (1979) 138]. Electroencephalogram (EEG) power evolution of a 6-8-Hz frequency band was averaged before and after imposed or voluntary movement onset. EEG reactivity of control and autistic children did not differ during the imposed unloading condition, but significant differences appeared in the voluntary unloading situations. Before lifting the object, control children showed an ERD above the left motor areas. An ERD also occurred above the right motor areas when the object was placed on their forearm. This indicates that the ERD can also translate the use of anticipatory postural adjustments. By contrast, children with autism did not show an ERD in the two voluntary situations. This suggests a central deficit of anticipation in both postural and motor control in children with autism.

Nir, I., D. Meir, et al. (1995). "Brief report: circadian melatonin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and cortisol levels in serum of young adults with autism." J Autism Dev Disord 25(6): 641-54.
An abnormal circadian pattern of melatonin was found in a group of young adults with an extreme autism syndrome. Although not out of phase, the serum melatonin levels differed from normal in amplitude and mesor. Marginal changes in diurnal rhythms of serum TSH and possibly prolactin were also recorded. Subjects with seizures tended to have an abnormal pattern of melatonin correlated with EEG changes. In others, a parallel was evidenced between thyroid function and impairment in verbal communication. There appears to be a tendency for various types of neuroendocrinological abnormalities in autistics, and melatonin, as well as possibly TSH and perhaps prolactin, could serve as biochemical variables of the biological parameters of the disease.

Ornitz, E. M. (1983). "The functional neuroanatomy of infantile autism." Int J Neurosci 19(1-4): 85-124.
Infantile autism is a behavioral syndrome consisting of specific disturbances of social relating and communication, language, response to objects, sensory sensitivity and motility. The uniqueness of this syndrome suggests one underlying pathophysiologic mechanism, although multiple etiologies, which could activate or replicate such a mechanism, have been demonstrated. Review of considerable experimental evidence and clinical observation suggests that the symptomatology of autism, including the disturbances of social relating and communication, can best be explained as a disorder of sensory modulation. This in turn suggests a neurophysiologic mechanism consisting of dysfunction of a cascading series of neurophysiologic levels or interacting neuronal loops in the brainstem and diencephalon which subserve modulation of sensory input. Some of those same systems modulate motor output in response to sensory input, and their dysfunction may release the abnormal perseverative motility of infantile autism. Other experimental evidence and clinical observations stress the language deficits of autism and implicate dysfunction of cortical structures. Brainstem and diencephalic centers project rostrally to telencephalic structures and these, in turn, modify brainstem and diencephalic function. Theories of rostrally and caudally directed sequences of pathoneurophysiologic contributions to the system dysfunction in autism are compared. It is concluded that the symptoms of autism can best be explained in terms of dysfunction of brainstem and related diencephalic behavioral systems and their elaboration and refinement by selected higher neural structures.

Patzold, L. M., A. L. Richdale, et al. (1998). "An investigation into sleep characteristics of children with autism and Asperger's Disorder." J Paediatr Child Health 34(6): 528-33.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the specificity of sleep problems in children with autism and further explore the currently unclear association between sleep problems and daytime behaviour. METHODOLOGY: The Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) group consisted of 31 children with autism and 7 children with Asperger's Disorder ranging in age from 44 to 152 months. The control group consisted of 36 children ranging in age from 63 to 171 months. The children were matched on age and gender, and group-matched on IQ level. A sleep diary was completed by parents over a 2-week period, in addition to several behaviour questionnaires. RESULTS: Results showed that children in the PDD group exhibited qualitatively and quantitatively different sleep patterns to nonautistic control children. CONCLUSIONS: The findings were discussed in light of current literature concerning circadian rhythm dysfunction, social difficulties, and abnormal melatonin levels in children with autism.

Paul Capobianco, D. (2003). Benefits of Osteopathic Treatment For The Pediatric Patient, The American College of Osteopathic Family Physicians (ACOFP). 2005.
Osteopathic family physicians use manual skills to treat a myriad of pediatric conditions.
In February of 1864, four of Dr. Still’s children died of infections. Three children ages 11, 12, and 9 died rapidly over three days from a spinal meningitis epidemic and his one-year-old daughter died of pneumonia later that same month.1
Dr. Still’s helplessness during these devastating illnesses drove him toward discovering the form of medicine that would later be known as osteopathy.
In his research during the 10 years after his childrens’ deaths, he began to observe patterns of spinal reflexes that correlated with acute specific illnesses. He noted that there were predictable changes in skin temperature that went along with certain diseases and that applying deep pressure to the spinal reflexes shortened an infection’s course. 2
He surmised that the muscle contraction and the stoppage of the blood to and from the brain was the cause that produced these effects and that the patient will die from effects of dead blood, the result of stagnation due to obstruction of nerve and blood circulation.
When his art was fully proclaimed he claimed he was able to help many cases of fever, chickenpox, scarlet fever, measles, mumps, diphtheria, whooping cough, dysentery, diarrhea, constipation, asthma, influenza, eczema, croup, bed-wetting, epilepsy, pneumonia, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, and others.3,4
He treated a lot of cases of asthma, and stated about it “I have never failed on a case of asthma to date, and after eighteen years’ practice can say that for asthma Osteopathy is king”.5
Trips to the Doctor
Due to the modern practices of immunization and antibiotic usage the more frequent illnesses encountered by an osteopathic physician are different than in the past. Frequently encountered illnesses encountered by family physicians include: Allergies, Asthma, Attention deficit, Autism, Autoimmune diseases, Back pain, Behavioral problems, Cerebral palsy, Colic, Colitis, Constipation, Crohn’s, Croup, Depression, Developmental delays, Feeding/nursing problems, Gastroesophageal, Headaches, Hyperactivity, Injuries, Learning difficulties, Otitis media, Pharyngitis, Plagiocephaly, Reflux disease, Sinusitis, Torticollis,
Condition Causes
In looking at early pediatric issues and their causes encountered by the osteopathic physician, it is best to start with conditions that may precede somatic dysfunction.
Maternal factors affecting the child that should be considered are: Anemia , Diabetes, Excessive grief, Fever, Hyperemesis, Maternal bleeding, Maternal somatic dysfunctions of for example the pelvis, lumbar, or ribcage, Maternal toxin exposure, Pregnancy induced hypertension, Presence of a twin, Poor nutrition, Prolonged illnesses, Trauma to abdomen like an auto accident during pregnancy, Fibroid or bicornuate uterus, It is also important to consider the factors that are involved in the birth process itself that can contribute to health issues in the child:
Long labor can cause excessive compressive forces on the baby. Too short of a labor may deliver a baby that’s head has not properly molded to accommodate the birth canal. Excessive or too strong contractions that may be brought on by Pitocin, can also cause trauma. A Cesarean section. Although seemingly harmless, these cause dysfunction to the baby because of the sudden pressure changes involved, the preceding events, sedation, and the lack of proper first breath. An epidural delivery may lead to more birth trauma because of the lack of feedback from the pelvis. Forceps, if improperly used, could cause injury to underlying fragile anatomical tissues. A vacuum extractor may also contribute to these problems. The face presentation may lead to facial problems/dysfunctions. The breech presentation can be traumatic. A first child or a long gap between babies may lead to more trauma. Prematurity, even though the child weighs less, its skull is unprepared for the rigors of delivery, or the firmness of an incubator flooring. Too large of a baby may incur trauma. A cord around the neck too can cause pressure changes and anoxia. Somatic Dysfunction
There are many factors contributing to somatic dysfunction. In an exhaustive study published on “birth trauma,” Dr. Viola Frymann, founder of the Osteopathic Center for Children in San Diego, discovered 80 percent of the 1,250 infants she chronicled in the research suffered from some form of trauma incurred during birth.6
Since the newborn is neurologically incomplete, potential adverse effects related to birth trauma may not be immediately obvious. Many disease states can be altered by cranial manipulation in the regions related to anatomical disturbances in the cranial nerve pathways involved. Given the extensive pathways and fascial and membranous connections throughout the body it is wise to treat the whole patient.
Pediatric Assessment
An appropriate pediatric assessment of the birth or early trauma contributing to the patient’s state at time of presentation includes the following inquiries: cry at birth, nursing ability, spitting up or vomiting, colic, sleep habits, constipation, developmental delays, bruises present or misshapen head at birth, opisthotonic contractures, and issues relating to preferring to stand on toes or inflexibility of the muscles (may indicate pyramidal tract region injury).
Osteopathic Examination The osteopathic examination of the pediatric patient includes a thorough neurological study, and a check of early reflexes. Moro, grasp, asymmetrical tonic neck, parachute, deep tendon, and plantar reflexes can alert the osteopathic physician early to easily missed areas needing attention.
Structural Dysfunctions Dr. Beryl Arbuckle said that 95 percent of cerebral palsy is probably caused from structural dysfunctions.7 A complete cranial, vertebral, ribcage, pelvis, sacral, and extremity examination with attention to asymmetry, distortion, and somatic dysfunction will highlight areas that are in need of osteopathic treatment.
Due to the head size, important contents, and vulnerability to trauma, knowledge and usage of osteopathy in the cranial field on the pediatric population is universally useful. It is not mandatory at first to be highly trained in cranial work to treat pediatric patients.
Treatments
Many pediatric patients respond favorably to lymphatic and myofascial mobilization. In the pediatric patient (beginning with the newborn) attention is paid to the cranial bones, sutures, fontanelles, membranes, brain, cranial nerves passageways, and the ventricular system. Knowledge of the embryological and postnatal development of the craniofacial structures guides the treatment process for normalizing the anatomy.8
Occipital condylar decompression freeing up the pyramidal tracts, cranial nerves 9-12, and any sphenobasilar compression can have widespread effects. Newborn treatment with attention to the extremities, especially the knees according to Fulford, the vertebral column, and ribcage all with gentle myofascial approaches is indicated.9
In the older infant and child the addition of mandibular drainage of Galbreath helps in drainage of the middle ear via the eustachian tube and lymphatics. A recent OMT study of recurrent acute otitis media by Mills et al showed OMT may prevent or decrease surgical intervention or antibiotic overuse.10
Cervical treatment in a young child below six-years-old probably would not necessitate any thrusting techniques. There is not much force required to reduce these somatic dysfunctions. In older children and adolescents, treatment similar to that an adult receives can be used.
High velocity is not contraindicated in children, however children with Downs Syndrome or rheumatoid arthritis should not receive HVLA to the cervical spine because the odontoid ligament is susceptible to rupture. Myofascial, BLT, FPR, muscle energy, and counterstrain are all useful and may be modified depending on the ability of the pediatric patient to participate.
O-A and A-A regions directly affect parasympathetic function through the vagus nerve. C3-5 phrenic nerve origins affect diaphragm motor function. Release and stroking of lymphatic tissues of the cervical chain, trachea, and hyoid is especially useful in pharyngitis, sinusitis and otitis.
Thoracic and lumbar treatments can easily be accomplished with the many soft tissue treatments available. Gentle, accurate HVLA technique can be useful to reduce Type I or local Type II dysfunctions. Often correction of single segment dysfunction can be done with soft tissue or fluid approaches. Balancing of the sympathetic nervous system here can be useful in helping many visceral or nervous disorders. Knowledge of viscerosomatic reflexes guides treatment.
Soft tissue springing, pumping of the ribs and Chapman’s reflexes facilitate drainage of lymph. A relative contraindication of a lymphatic treatment would be a child with a bacterial infection and a fever over 102 degrees. Fear of spreading the infection is a consideration. Rib and lymphatic treatment is very useful in many acute and chronic upper and lower respiratory conditions. Thoracic inlet fascia derived from scalenus and longus coli muscles forms a fascial diaphragm here.
Special attention to the drainage rich thoracic duct on the left side is important. Rib raising normalizes sympathetic activity. This directly dilates lymphatic vessels and promotes clearance of toxins. Therefore, thoracic and pedal pump are valuable in the pediatric age group.
Spleen and liver pump techniques enhance lymphatic and immune function. Diaphragm treatment with attention to the cisterna chyli anterior right of the L1-L2 vertebrate is a key region. Mesentery lift and Chapman’s reflexes are a nice gateway into treatment of the abdomen contents.
Sacral and pelvic inter and intraosseous dysfunction and pelvic diaphragm restriction should be addressed. Falls to the buttocks, while the child is learning to stand and walk can be a contributing factor.
The primary respiratory mechanism can be normalized by treatment of the sacrum aiding the health of the child. Sacral sag of the base anteriorly or a craniosacral extension here can lead to mental disturbances. Sacral evaluation is a priority from newborns all the way to adolescents.
The extremities are susceptible to restriction of motion at the joints, misalignment of bones, and muscle and fascial restrictions. Shoulder dysfunction can be treated by soft tissue approaches. Carpal separation technique may reveal dysfunction, especially in children who frequently use computers.
Sports injuries in the older child can easily be helped with osteopathic manipulation and can quickly get the child back in the game. Minor meniscal tears or sprained ligaments usually heal well with a thorough treatment plan. Shin splints often are alleviated with treatment of the tissues involved. An anterior tibia displaced upon the talus is often found in youth, especially after they have stopped quickly on a court. Reduction with HVLA can prevent later ankle pathology.
External Factors
Part of the osteopathic treatment program for any child should include attention to external factors that can alter health. Rotation of a newborns’ head in bed by alternating sides each night promotes a more normal cranium. Adequate “tummy time” should be encouraged to promote crawling.
The parent should be discouraged from using a walker to help a baby walk sooner. This is primarily to help achieve because mastery of crawling, for all of its sensory and neural effects. Conversely, leaving a baby in a stationary entertainment center too long could prevent optimization in gaining strength to learn to crawl.
Pacifier usage should be terminated before the eruption of teeth, but the preferable method is not to use one at all. Speech, socialization and cranial disorders can result from over use.
Proper attention to pillow height, keeping it to a minimum, is vital in protecting the posture of the older child. Proper shoes are important to the developing posture; high heels may contribute to knee and back dysfunction. Usage of protective gear and helmets during many activities including bicycling is vital. Avoidance of usage of the head in sports like soccer, and safety in sports, especially football, is essential.
Adequate exercise of at least two hours per day in older children will help avert the onset of obesity and early diabetes. A good diet low in sugar, artificial foods, and trans-fatty acids will avert health problems later. Limiting television to one hour a day or none at all, will encourage better socialization skills, playability, and exercise.

The osteopathic approach to the pediatric patient is a process that begins with the health of the mother, and carries through all the way up to adulthood. A recent study by King et al 11 found improved outcomes in labor and delivery for women who some were only given one or two OMT treatments during pregnancy. Thorough treatment of the newborn with attention to the birth trauma is one of the most important treatments in a child’s life.

Hospitalized Patient OMT in the hospitalized patient post surgically for an appendix removal, case of pneumonia or asthma can speed healing. Osteopathic manipulation is a conservative treatment that will go a long way to decrease usage of medicines, surgeries, orthodontia, glasses, hearing aids, braces, wheelchairs, physical therapy, speech therapy, occupational therapy, special education, sports restrictions, and psychotherapy.

Salmond, C. H., J. Ashburner, et al. (2005). "The role of the medial temporal lobe in autistic spectrum disorders." Eur J Neurosci 22(3): 764-72.
The neural basis of autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) is poorly understood. Studies of mnemonic function in ASD suggest a profile of impaired episodic memory with relative preservation of semantic memory (at least in high-functioning individuals). Such a pattern is consistent with developmental hippocampal abnormality. However, imaging evidence for abnormality of the hippocampal formation in ASD is inconsistent. These inconsistencies led us to examine the memory profile of children with ASD and the relationship to structural abnormalities. A cohort of high-functioning individuals with ASD and matched controls completed a comprehensive neuropsychological memory battery and underwent magnetic resonance imaging for the purpose of voxel-based morphometric analyses. Correlations between cognitive/behavioural test scores and quantified results of brain scans were also carried out to further examine the role of the medial temporal lobe in ASD. A selective deficit in episodic memory with relative preservation of semantic memory was found. Voxel-based morphometry revealed bilateral abnormalities in several areas implicated in ASD including the hippocampal formation. A significant correlation was found between parental ratings reflecting autistic symptomatology and the measure of grey matter density in the junction area involving the amygdala, hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. The data reveal a pattern of impaired and relatively preserved mnemonic function that is consistent with a hippocampal abnormality of developmental origin. The structural imaging data highlight abnormalities in several brain regions previously implicated in ASD, including the medial temporal lobes.

Schmitz, C., J. Martineau, et al. (2003). "Motor control and children with autism: deficit of anticipatory function?" Neurosci Lett 348(1): 17-20.
This study aims at investigating how do anticipatory postural adjustments develop in children with autism, during a bimanual load-lifting task that required maintaining the stabilisation of the forearm despite imposed or voluntary unloading. Elbow angle and electromyographic were recorded on the child forearm supporting the load. The forearm stabilisation was as good in children with autism as in the control group. However, in children with autism, the latencies for both kinematics and muscular events indicated an increase of the duration of unloading. These results indicate the use of a feedback rather than a feed-forward mode of control. Impairments in both the building of internal representations and the mastering of timing parameters, could explain the deficient postural anticipation reported in children with autism.

Vernazza-Martin, S., N. Martin, et al. (2005). "Goal directed locomotion and balance control in autistic children." J Autism Dev Disord 35(1): 91-102.
This article focuses on postural anticipation and multi-joint coordination during locomotion in healthy and autistic children. Three questions were addressed. (1) Are gait parameters modified in autistic children? (2) Is equilibrium control affected in autistic children? (3) Is locomotion adjusted to the experimenter-imposed goal? Six healthy children and nine autistic children were instructed to walk to a location (a child-sized playhouse) inside the psychomotor room of the pedopsychiatric centre located approximately 5 m in front of them. A kinematic analysis of gait (ELITE system) indicates that, rather than gait parameters or balance control, the main components affected in autistic children during locomotion are the goal of the action, the orientation towards this goal and the definition of the trajectory due probably to an impairment of movement planning.

Wimpory, D., B. Nicholas, et al. (2002). "Social timing, clock genes and autism: a new hypothesis." J Intellect Disabil Res 46(Pt 4): 352-8.
BACKGROUND: Timing and social timing deficits are fundamental in autism and may play a developmental role in its manifestation. Sleep problems are associated with this disorder, as is a reduction or loss of Purkinje cells associated with regions of the brain which co-ordinate fine motor movements. Genetic studies suggest that a number of genes of limited effect lead to autism and that the genes are epistatic. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that anomalies in clock genes operating as timing genes in high frequency oscillator systems may underlie the timing deficits of autism. We outline how anomalies in methylation-related genes may also be implicated.

Saturday, November 19, 2005

Autism Conference in Verona Italy Nov 2005


Autism Conference in Verona Italy

Bon Jorno,

My presentation at the Autism conference in Verona, Italy was the most controversial presentation and prompted a lot of questions. I was very pleased with the reception to IMT in Italy. Many of the 180 plus people who attended the conference were parents of children with autism and interested in how to access IMT for their child in the future. The rest were health care professionals and teachers. I spoke to two physical therapists who are interested in taking classes and many parents interested in learning what they can do for children with autism. I am very much looking forward to being involved in a CenterIMT presence in Italy and returning at some point.

After an 8 hour flight (14 hours in transit) sitting next to a claustrophobic man, who couldn't make up his mind which was better the window where he could look out or the aisle where he could walk around, so we switched seats several times, I arrived on Friday morning 7 am in Milano Malpensa Airport.

Dr. Gabriella Lesmo picked me up and we then met Dr. Jo Feingold, who was on a slightly later flight. We went back to Gabriella's house to clean up and see a few of her patients. I saw Pietro, a 6 year old who came to CT for a month. His seizures have decreased from 30 grand mal seizures in a week to 10-15 percent of the previous number and severity. He looked great. I flew through Toronto and picked up some maple syrup for him.

I also saw several other children at Gabriella's house / office. It was fun and gave me a chance to try out the Italian I have been studying for the last 3 weeks since I learned I was going to Italy for this conference.

In the morning sunlight I stood on her second floor balcony rehearsing my presentation to the birds and flowers in her garden below me.

In the evening we drove to Verona, where the conference was held. I looked for the Gentlemen of Verona and wanted to tell Romeo and Juliet not to drink the poison, but it was too late. The drive in the dark was highlighted by houses and buildings outlined in white lights - perhaps for the holidays, perhaps they are always like that. Juxtaposed against that were several Blockbuster stores. I didn't see the vineyards but apparently the area is known for the very sweet wine made in the area

At midnight we were finishing a wonderful dinner - fish, greens, grilled potatoes, onions and salad and cheese. The cheese I had on this trip was especially good. I brought some back and at US customs they said"just cheese you just have cheese with you." I said "yes". They said "where are you coming in from". I said "Italy" and they said, "Do they have good cheese" Apparently not everyone know that Italy has great cheese.

Throughout the night we drank bubbly, of course - water that is. Some of the best sparkling water is Italian. Dinner was also quite the international affair, given that the speakers and participants at the conference were from Italy, Denmark, England, United States, even one man who described himself as a Spaniard born in Canada living in Italy.

I was, amazingly enough, still awake for dinner and credit to volume of supplements - several different kinds of essential fatty acids, physiologic limbic support, antioxidants, homeopathics for jet lag and more.

At 1 am, it had been 37 hours since I had been asleep in an actual bed. But the bed that I got to sleep in there in Verona was very comfortable in a Best Western hotel room, but not like any Best Western I have ever seen - no this one was a 17th century Italian Villa with a beautiful garden and vaulted arches, antique sculptures, etc. But I didn't see all that till I got a little sleep.

I did briefly, before I fell into bed, look out my window at the full moon - which, yes, looked like a big pizza pie in the sky.

I steamed up the bathroom with the shower to get the wrinkles out of my gray silk suit - had to look good for my presentation.

Saturday morning I woke up took more vitamins and went off to the conference and practiced my Italian. As I was standing there before the conference started a woman smiled but didn't say anything and I said Bon Jorno and with a look of relief on her face she launched into Italian. I was sad to have to tell her I didn't really speak Italian.

The one day conference itself covered a number of topics ranging from sensory learning, speech therapy, hyperbaric oxygen, the Defeat Autism Now (DAN) protocol and Integrative Manual Therapy.

In the afternoon before my presentation, Kathy Miana’s (IMT therapist in California) daughter, Milena came to the conference. It was lovely, we walked in the gardens watched the sunset and she helped me practice the opening line of my presentation in Italian:

""Una tecnica sufficientemente avanzata puo’ essere confusa a la magia" - Arthur C. Clark.